E.g., Bikson, T. K., B. A. Gutek, and D. Mankin., Implementing Computerized Procedures in Office Settings: Influences and Outcomes, RAND, R-3077-NSF, 1987. Interestingly, these studies were funded over the objections of many senior NSF managers, who believed that personal computing was a very narrow kind of technology, highly unlikely to be widely diffused in workplaces. Of course, at the same time all the top minds in computing and information science at the RAND Corporation were passionately opposed to graphical user interfaces on the grounds that they dumbed-down computing, insisting on the vast superiority of the command line interface and the “dot prompt”.